PCOS or what is scientifically known as Polycystic ovary syndrome, is a common disease among women of childbearing age and leads to a defect in the ovulation process and disorders in the menstrual cycle, which affects the fertility of women and their ability to have children. After diagnosing polycystic ovaries, the doctor develops a treatment plan to help the woman get rid of the cyst and monitor her health during pregnancy, as women with polycystic ovaries may be more susceptible to gestational diabetes and high blood pressure.The ovarian cyst is a hormonal disorder that results in the enlargement of the ovary due to the accumulation of small cysts on its surface. These cysts contain immature eggs that have not reached the stage of ovulation.

PCOS symptoms

Common symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome can include:

-Menstrual disorders.-Menstrual irregularities.-Excessive hair growth in unexpected places on the body such as the face, around the    breasts and thighs.-Facing difficulty getting pregnant.-The appearance of dark spots on the skin, especially in the folds of the body.-obesity concentrated in some areas, especially the abdomen.-The appearance of acne on the face.-Weakness and brittleness of head hair.-High blood sugar level.-Psychological symptoms such as depression, isolation, and lack of self-confidence.

Therefore, Polycystic ovary syndrome causes a range of health problems and disturbing symptoms, but it must be emphasized that it is not necessary to have all of these symptoms in one case, where only one or two symptoms may be present.

Causes of PCOS

the Mechanism for the development of ovarian cysts is not known specifically, so the main cause is not known, but there are some factors that may contribute to the occurrence of ovarian cysts and help them to develop, including:

1/Genetic factors: Genes and genetic factors have a major role in the emergence of polycystic ovary disease, as it is noted that more than one case of polycystic ovary disease appears within the same family.
2/High levels of androgens in the body
: Normally, the ovaries produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, as well as small amounts of the male hormone androgen. In the case of PCOS, the secretion of androgens increases, causing the formation of fluid-filled sacs that grow on the surface of the ovaries.

3/Insulin resistance: In some cases, PCOS is a result of increased insulin resistance in the body, and insulin is the hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar and helps glucose move from the blood to cells to produce energy. Insulin resistance means that the cells of the body do not respond to the insulin existing in the blood, which stimulates the pancreas to secrete larger amounts of it. The increase in the hormone insulin in the body contributes to stimulating the ovaries to increase the secretion of the male hormone androgen, and thus this may lead to polycystic ovary syndrome.

4/Obesity: Several scientific studies have proven a strong relationship between weight gain and a high incidence of polycystic ovaries, as obesity causes the body to resist insulin and thus increase the production of androgen hormone, which may lead to PCOS, but this does not mean that skinny women cannot have this disease.

Diagnosis of Polycystic ovaries

Diagnosis of PCOS depends on three main components: clinical examination, measurement of levels of certain hormones, and ultrasound examination.

At the beginning of the examination, you should review the details of the health history of the case and ask about the symptoms that the patient complains of and the gradation of their appearance. During the clinical examination, blood pressure is measured, and the body mass index is calculated. It is also possible to notice the presence of dark skin spots or excessive hair growth in unusual places on the body.

Ultrasound imaging allows examining the endometrium and the shape of the ovaries and enhances the diagnosis . PCOS is confirmed by some tests that are conducted to measure the proportion of a number of hormones in the blood, such as: androgen hormone analysis, thyroid hormones analysis, prolactin analysis, and blood sugar analysis.

Polycystic ovary syndrome treatment

After the diagnosis of Polycystic ovary syndrome, the appropriate treatment is according to the situation and varies from patient to patient. Treatment methods for PCOS are divided into:

Drug treatment: Polycystic ovary syndrome is originally caused by a hormonal imbalance, so some medications are given to regulate the menstrual cycle, treat excessive hair growth, and restore hormonal balance in the body. In the same context, the attending physician advises to do exercises ,lose weight, adhere to a healthy diet and healthy lifestyle . Pharmacological treatment is one of the most important methods of treating polycystic ovaries. Medicines are used under the supervision of the doctor, and it is strictly forbidden to use them without consulting him.

Surgical treatment: In case of non-response to drug treatment, the attending doctor can resort to surgical intervention to remove the cysts on the ovary, where the ovaries are cauterized with a medical endoscope through the abdomen by the laser or electric current.

Artificial insemination: Polycystic ovaries affect a woman's ability to become pregnant by impeding the ovulation process or leading to the release of immature eggs that are not suitable for fertilization. IVF methods (IVF and ICSI) help to overcome the problem of difficulty in conceiving due to polycystic ovaries. After giving the wife ovulation stimulants, the mature eggs are withdrawn by an ultrasound-guided needle and then they are fertilized in the laboratory with sperm from the husband.